An increase in the exchange rate of the U.S. dollar relative to a trading partner can result from higher anticipated costs of production in the U.S. C

An increase in the exchange rate of the U.S. dollar relative to a trading partner can result from
higher anticipated costs of production in the U.S.
higher interest rates and higher inflation in the U.S.
higher growth rates in the trading partner’s economy
a change in the terms of trade
lower export industry productivity