Literature review for The effect of electronic word of mouth on brand image and purchase intention: a case study of electronic smartphones Custom Pape

This literature review should include thought and opinion of different scholars on the topic. the writer should be objective on his on opinions as well. he should have done an in depth reading of different schools of thought.
please i want this literature review to have a clear focus and should be very objective. he should also use relevant theories related to the study.

INTRODUCTION
Over the years, word of mouth (WOM) has played a vital role in influencing, tastes, preferences, attitudes, and intentions of consumers (Chevalier and Mayzlin 2006; Sen and Lerman 2007; Xia and Bechwati 2008). Research from various scholars has shown that WOM is more effective and influential in communicating brand information than other communication modes such as advertisement and newspaper articles because people believe it is more reliable (Smith, Menon, and Sivakumar 2005; Trusov, Bucklin, and Pauwels 2009). According to Mayzlin (2006), many advertisers believe that using WOM can have a greater influence to the consumers due to its trustworthiness and credibility in the eyes of the customers.
Chatterjee (2001), Word-of-mouth (WOM) communication is generally acknowledged to play a
considerable role in influencing and forming consumer attitudes and behavioral
intentions. Initially, WOM used to refer to personal communication between two people in physical contact (Sen and Lerman 2007). However, the advances in the technology and adoption of the internet has led to development of a less personalised and far reaching form of WOM, which is currently known as electronic word of mouth (e-WOM) (Brown, Broderick, and Lee 2007). This form of WOM is ubiquitous and it has grown rapidly to become an important marketing avenue as well as a source of information for consumers. Mayzlin (2006) intimated that e-WOM is more effective than the face-to face WOM due its wider reach and ability to spread quickly.
Consumers in different parts of the world have embraced the e-WOM and they use it often before making purchases. Sen and Lerman (2007) stated that internet is full of product reviews posted by consumers. These reviews form a good example of e-WOM and consumers on the Internet use them often before making a purchase in order to determine the best product to buy. Besides the reviews, consumers also attach a great deal of trust in the brand name of a product. Stronger brand names often influence the consumer’s opinion and decision-making process. According to Davies and Chun (2002) consumer’s attitudes, perceptions and intentions have often been strongly affected by the brand name due to the credibility attached to an established brand.
Based on the arguments of different scholars, readers should note that WOM communication impacts heavily on the consumer’s decision-making (Brown, Broderick, and Lee 2007; Mayzlin 2006). Therefore, e-WOM communication has strong influence on consumer’s perception about the brand image and consequently, the purchase intention (Davis and Khazanchi 2008). For instance, Nokia was the most popular brand in 2011 with 40% followed by Sony Ericsson with 34% apple with 11% and Blackberry and HTC had 5 % & 4% respectively. The brand popularity was enhanced by the operating platform coupled with competitive pricing and brand communication strategy (Mohd et al. 2012). Recently, the android and IOS have taken over the smartphone market. According to IDC, a smartphone review site, "The smartphone market is still a rising tide that’s lifting many ships," said Kevin Restivo Senior Research Analyst with IDC’s Worldwide Quarterly Mobile Phone Tracker. Though Samsung and Apple are the dominant players, the market is as fragmented as ever. There is ample opportunity for smartphone vendors with differentiated offerings."
Apple has laboured to cultivate a strong brand personality based on the ideas of nonconformity, innovation, and creativity. Advertising and marketing strategy have highlighted these associated characteristics with phrases like the “Think Different” campaign but that is not enough (Burroughs and Mick 2004). Indeed, in this age of consumer‐generated content when product personalization and idiosyncratic consumer expression are at an all‐time high creativity is becoming more central to many consumption behaviours.

Story and Loroz (2005) implied that brand image originates from the perceptions and experiences of customers. Hence, the perceived quality of a product determines its brand image. In cases where a product is intangible, it is difficult to determine its quality before consumptions. In such cases, the consumers depend on the e-WOM. The problem of branding has been deemed as primary capital for many industries. Strong brands can increase customers’ trust and loyalty in the product or service purchased and enabling them to better visualize and understand intangible factors. According to Yoo and Donthu (2001), brand image can influence a company’s future profits and long-term cash flow, a consumer’s willingness to pay premium prices, merger and acquisition decision-making, stock prices, sustainable competitive advantage, and marketing success. Based on the argument that especially vividly presented WOM communication has a strong impact on product judgments (Herr et al., 1991),
In the Smartphone market, where competition is high and the brands are many, e-WOM communication has become an essential component for many consumers. Consumers can currently, go online and observe reviews from bloggers and other reviewers before making a choice on the phone to purchase. This trend has changed the preference of customers from using Nokia to adopting android platform, which has drastically risen in popularity among users (Mohd et al. 2012). Often, products with better reviews possess the potential to improve their brand image thus influencing the purchasing intent of customers. Consumers are increasingly dependent on e-WOM communication to make decisions about new products. Therefore, it is logical to assume that E-WOM communication affects the brand image and it equally affects the consumer’s intention to purchase a product. Despite the significant impact of e-WOM communication on many products, very little research has been carried out to determine its effects on the Smartphone market. Hence, this study will attempt to determine the effect of electronic word of mouth on Smartphone brand image and purchase intention of the consumers.

The effect of electronic word of mouth on brand image and purchase intention: a case study of electronic smartphones.

OBJECTIVES
1. To examine the extent to which e-WOM can influence perception of a brand and purchase intention of consumers of smartphones.
2. To understand the motivation of consumer to engage in e-WOM in their purchase decision.
RESEARCH QUESTION
1. What is the motivation behind generating e-WOM?
2. Why is e-WOM important to consumers and their purchase decision?
3. What role does it play in the image of a brand?
4. How do consumers respond to e-WOM
RESEARCH PROBLEM
Yearly, marketers invest in advertising to spread news and information about their product but in recent times trends are changing as traditional marketing strategies have become less effective. Consumers no longer rely mainly on advertising to make informed decision.

To achieve the study objectives, a quantitative method of research will be conducted. It is hoped that the chosen methodology will generate useful information through collection and analysis of data.
Collection of Data
A self-administered questionnaire based on simple sampling will be distributed to participant in Coventry University. The questionnaire will have 15-20 questions based on the study. They will be easy to read and answer.
Sample Size
For the purpose of this study, a total of 97 questionnaires will be distributed to 100 participants.